Tuesday, April 24, 2018

FALL 2018

INTRODUCTION TO LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES

INTS 130-01 (1608)
Tomás F. Crowder-Taraborrelli
Office hours: Maathai 414, Mondays 10:15 to 11:00 a.m
Class Time: Tuesdays and Thursdays 1:00 - 2:30 p.m.

It is a great pleasure and also a great challenge to teach a course like this. Since the Wars of Independence, Latin America has seen dramatic changes in its political and social identity. The last century has been marked by a never-ending series of coup d’états, often times sponsored by U.S. governments, which have undermined democratic governments and their policies. In spite of this, Latin America has shown resilience and continues to advance a progressive agenda that strives to do away with social inequality. In this course, we will examine the history of the region, paying particular attention to major political changes and their repercussion in popular culture. The course is organized chronologically, but we will always strive to assess how past events mobilize social forces in the present.


Books
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America.
New York: Monthly Review Press, 1997.
Chasteen, John Charles, Born in Blood and Fire: A
Concise History of Latin America, 2nd ed., N.Y.; London: W.W. Norton & Co., 2006.

Assignments
There are four types of assignments in this course: a group or individual presentation (based on the assigned discussion topic readings), a mid-term exam and a final argumentative research paper (8 - 10 pages).


Readings
I have organized course readings in two categories: common readings (CR) and assigned readings (AR). All students will have to read Common Readings and students assigned to a particular discussion topic will read CRs and also Discussion Topic Readings. Students are encouraged to read all readings, but I understand that it might not be possible. Since discussion is an essential part of each class, please complete all the readings before class and bring to class a few questions to generate dialogue. Always bring hard copies of the reading to class so you can cite passages and/or page numbers during discussion.


Tentative schedule of Readings and Assignments (Please check our Bright Space course site for more information about the readings)

Week 1
"The Conquest"

Thursday September 8th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 1-58 (CR)
Fernandez Retamar, Roberto. “Caliban: A question”. The Oxford Book of Latin American
            Essays. (375- 378) (CR)

Week 2
Tuesday September 13th
Cabeza de Vaca. Naufragios [selections] (CR)
Moreno Fraginals, M. “The Death of the Forest” (AR)
Chasteen, J. Born in Blood and Fire, Chapter 1 (CR)
Las Casas, Bartolome. In Defense of the Indians. (Selections)
Rodriguez, Silvio. "La maza". Song [on Bright Space]

Thursday September 15th
Galeano, E. TOVOLA 59-113 (CR)
FILM: La hora de los hornos, dir. Grupo Cine Liberación [first part screened in class]

Week 3

The Conquest and Colonialism

TUESDAY September 20th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 59-133 (CR)
Mills, Keneth and William B. Taylor. Colonial Spanish America: Chapters 6, 12,15.
FILM: La tierra quema, Dir. Raymundo Gleyzer

THURSDAY September 22nd
Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire. Chapter 1 (25-57) (AR)
Manzano, Juan Francisco. “Autobiography of a slave” The Cuba Reader (49-57) (AR)
Cuban Music: "Santa Barbara, Que viva Chango", Conjunto Folklorico Nacional de Cuba.
Film: Inner Borderlines: Visions of America Through The Eyes of Alejandro Morales, 7 p.m. Pauling 216

Week 4

Independence 

TUESDAY September 27th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 113-133 (CR)
Marti, Jose. “Our America” and other selected essays. (CR)
Introd. to Sarmiento's Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants (CR)
Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire. Chapter 3, 91-112 (AR)

THURSDAY September 29th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. 134-170 (CR)
Ortiz, Fernando. “Tobacco and Sugar”. The Oxford Book of Latin American Essays. 
(70-74)
Ortiz, Fernando. "Transculturation". The Cuba Reader.
Moore, Robin. “Afrocubanismo and Son” (192-200)
Sublette, Ned. Cuba and Its Music. (Available in the library as an electronic text) Recommended reading.
Parra, Violeta. "Easy for singing", "Dumb, Sad and Thoughtful" (AR)
FILM: Violeta se fue a los cielos, dir. Andres Wood (Chile, 2011) [selection]

Week 5


Revolution

TUESDAY October 4th
Skidmore, Thomas E., Peter H. Smith & James N. Green. “Mexico: The Taming of a
            Revolution”. Modern Latin America. (47-78)
Florescano, Enrique. "The Colonial Latifundio" (CR)


THURSDAY, October 6th
The Mexican Revolution. Selection of readings (Angel): Flores Magon, "Land and Liberty", Zapata and
            others, "Plan of Ayala", Cabrera, "The Restoration of the Ejido" (CR)
Mexico at the Hour of Combat: Sabino Osuna's Photographs of the Mexican Revolution 
(in class writing
            workshop)
Sosa, Mercedes, "Gracias a la Vida" (online on our blog)
Yupanqui, Atahualpa. “El Arriero”, Divididos "El Arriero" (online on our blog)

Week 6

Modernity

TUESDAY October 11th
Skidmore, Thomas E., Peter H. Smith & James N. Green. “Brazil: The Awakening Giant”. (296- 340) CR
            de Andrade, Oswald. “Anthropophagite Manifesto”. The Oxford Book of Latin American
            Essays
. (96-99) (CR)

THURSDAY October 13th
Lispector, Clarice. “Creating Brasilia”. The Oxford Book of Latin American Essays. (331- 334). AR
Buarque, Chico. Construcao. Songs by Caetano Veloso, Jorge Bem [Played and discussed in class, see blog for lyrics and music]
Short documentary on Brasilia [sequence screened in class] Brasilia, contradicoes de uma Cidade Nova,
            dir. Joaquim Pedro, 1967.

Week 7
Tuesday October 18th
FILM Screening: Title to be announced

Thursday October 20th
Readings to be announced

Week 8
Tuesday, October 25th
MIDTERM

Thursday October 27th
Galeano, Eduardo. The Open Veins of Latin America. Chapter 5. 205- 261 (CR)
Research paper topic due!


Week 9
Tuesday, November 1st
Guevara, Che. “Man and Socialism”. (370-374) Cuban Reader (CR)
Chapter X, Social Revolution. Problems in Modern Latin America (CR)
Alvarez, Santiago. Now [short film screened in class]

Thursday, November 3rd
Espinosa, Julio Garcia Espinosa. “For an Imperfect Cinema”. The Cuba Reader.
Desnoes, Edmundo. “Inconsolable Memories: A Cuban View of the Missile Crises”.
Schwartz, Rosalie . “The Invasion of the tourist”. (244-252)
Class discussion of final research papers

Week 10
Alternative Forms of Government

Tuesday November 8th
Sitrin, Marina. Everyday Revolutions...Chapter 3, "Horizontalidad" (CR)
Zibechi, Raul. Territories in Resistance. Chapter 16 "The Art of Governing Movements" (CR)

Thursday November 10th
Campo, Javier and Tomás Crowder-Taraborrelli. Introduction: Media and Democratization. Unpublished
            Introduction of a Special Issue of Latin American Perspectives.


Week 11
State Terrorism

Tuesday November 15th
Arditti, Rita. Searching for Life: The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared
Children of Argentina
50-78 (CR)
Dinges, John. The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three
            Continents. 99-125 (CR)
FILM: La batalla de Chile, Dir. Patricio Guzmán [selection]

Thursday, November 17th.
Walsh, Roberto. “Carta a la Junta”.
Davis, Jeffrey. “Moving the Process and Proving The Truth”. Seeking Human Rights Justice in Latin
            America.
FILM: Fernando Ha Vuelto. Dir. Silvio Caiozzi.


Week 12
Religion and Liberation

Tuesday November 22nd
Gutiérrez, Gustavo. A Theology of Liberation, "Theology and Liberation" (CR).
Carroll, James. "Who am I to judge..." New Yorker Magazine ("
NewYorkerPopeArticle" on Bright Space)

Thursday November 24th
Reading TBA.

Week 13
Narcoscapes and Narcoculture

Tuesday November 29th
Cabanas, Miguel A. Narcoculture and the Politics of Representation (CR)
FILM: Narco Cultura, dir. Shaul Shwarz (on Netflix, streaming)

Thursday December 1st
Eisenhammer, Stephen. “Bare Life in Ciudad Juarez: Violence in a Space of Exclusion” (AR)
FILM: Señorita Extraviada (selection).

Week 14
Water Wars
Tuesday December 6th

Dangl, Benjamin. The Price of Fire: Resource Wars and Social Movements in Bolivia. Chapters 3 and 4 CR)
FILMS: The Corporation and Even the Rain [selections].

Thursday December 8th
Oral presentations

15th Week
Tuesday December 13th
Study Day

Thursday December 15th
Oral presentations if needed

Final Research paper due

Monday, April 23, 2018

The Hour of The Furnaces





For information about one of the filmmakers (Fernando "Pino" Solanas) follow this link:

http://sensesofcinema.com/2010/great-directors/fernando-solanas/

From the article:

Solanas’ first, and still most important feature, La hora de los hornos, had repercussions across Latin America and the world as a model of a politically militant cinema, by providing counter-information to contradict the long-established discourses that naturalised social inequalities and provided cover for elites who, in cooperation with foreign capital, exploited the lands and peoples of the continent. The film, in what Solanas dubbed a “cine-acto,” provokes the spectator to act through the use of cinema vérité and newsreel footage, interviews, shock montage and by interrupting itself to call for debate.

It was made during the authoritarian military government of Juan Carlos Onganía (not the more recent and notorious dictatorship), which waged repressive campaigns against universities and avant-garde culture (closing the Instituto Di Tella, center of experimentation in the visual arts, and prohibiting the opera Bomarzo, by Alberto Ginastera, and Pier Paolo Pasolini’s 1968 film Teorema), but during which the opposition sectors previously in conflict which each other were unifying under the banner of Peronism. Made clandestinely, La hora de los hornos documents both the “quotidian violence” of social injustice and the repressive violence that enforces it. But its radicality lies in its move beyond documentation into the sphere of militant agitation, the challenge it issues to the passive spectator through its conception of the “cine-acto,” inspired by, among others, Frantz Fanon’s pronouncement that “every spectator is a coward or a traitor.” Screenings were also carried out in clandestinely, with space opened for debate, and provocations built into the screening. These tactics were designed to directly mobilise the masses, but also addressed the middle-class intellectual, or as Solanas said in 1969, “the imperious necessity for the militant intelligentsia to root itself in Argentine reality and to contribute to the process of internal liberation of the movement of the masses.” (2)

The film has three parts. In the first, “Neocolonialism and Violence,” 16-millimeter footage filmed in factories, mines and cane fields is seen as a voiceover provides statistics. This material, shot by Solanas and Getino, is often recreated, acted out for the camera, as are the voices of the oligarchy, by which the cattle-breeding landowners are portrayed as culturally alienated, considering themselves more European than Argentine. These images are accompanied at times by a driving percussive soundtrack composed by Solanas, and at others by pop music that creates an ironic counterpoint to the image, a “détournement” of cosmopolitan pop culture, of which the most well-known sequence inter-cuts graphic slaughterhouse footage with print advertisements showing a superficial and oblivious bourgeoisie.

The second part lays out the populist historical revision, employing archival footage to present October 17 and Perón as “expressions of the people,” and, in the grand ideological shift of the time, precursors of the Marxist-inspired liberation struggles of the 1960s. This reconciliation of two previously incompatible revolutions—that of Perón (who persecuted the Argentine communists during his presidency) with that of Che Guevara—is a central imperative of the film, the third part of which consists of various calls for revolutionary violence.

Around the time of the making of La hora de los hornos, Solanas formed with Getino the Cine Liberación group, dedicated to, as their manifesto “Por un tercer cine” says, calling into question the prevalent models of “first cinema”—that of the industry, of which Argentina had a rich history—and “second cinema”—that of the auteur, which had momentarily flourished in Argentina in the early-1960s without establishing itself as a viable mode of filmmaking—and proposing a “third cinema” that is collective, formally experimental and above all politically militant. The manifesto addresses the problem of the passive cinemagoer by theorising the “film-act” as a “meeting” at which debate is given as much importance as the film itself.

With their next two films, Perón: la revolución justicialista (Perón: The Justicialist Revolution, 1971), and Perón: actualización doctrinaria para la toma del poder (Perón: Doctrinary Update for the Taking of Power, 1971), Solanas and Getino further explored Peronism’s potential contribution to the anticolonial struggle. The figure of Perón had retained its mythic power to inspire popular movements in Argentina, so Solanas and Getino set out to bring home images and the voice of the general for the first time since his overthrow. They interviewed Perón in Spain, where he was in exile, and put together two films in which they question the general on preselected themes, upon which he discourses with an impressive charisma and a surprising sense of humor. (3)

Each film has a very specific ideological design. In La revolución justicialista, directed at all Argentines, a casually dressed and relaxed Perón recounts a personal history of his first presidency. The film links Peronism and its popular appeal—facilitated by Perón’s revisionist account, based on easily graspable binaries such as that of the pueblo versus the oligarchy—to the leftist revolutionary struggles of the time. Actualización doctrinaria para la toma del poder specifically instructs members of the Peronist Movement how to rebuild its political machinery. The general, now more formally dressed, theorises on political systems, presents his own third position, and discusses his nationalist precursors, as his young wife Isabel sits mutely to his right. He was at that time becoming increasingly active, pulling the strings back in Argentina that would lead to his return to the presidency in 1973, which he held for less than a year before dying, leaving the scarcely-qualified Isabel in power. During his presidency he split violently with his more revolutionary supporters, leaving a polarised Argentina that would soon sink into the notorious military dictatorship of 1976 to 1983.

Between 1973 and 1975 Solanas, now without Getino, made what he called an “epic of the Argentine people,” the Glauber Rocha-inspired fiction feature Los hijos de Fierro (first screened in 1978). It appropriates “El gaucho Martín Fierro”, the 1872 narrative poem by José Hernández that recounts the exploits of the outlaw gaucho who was later proclaimed a model of Argentine authenticity by revisionists both elitist and populist. By equating Fierro with Perón (and aided by a voiceover in the same octosyllabic payador verse as the source poem), Solanas mythologises the Peronist resistance while presenting in a more realist key his own historical moment, from the 1955 right-wing coup that ousted Perón until just before his return to power.

The structure of the film is borrowed loosely from the poem, and consists of three episodes. In the first, “la ida” (the departure), Fierro’s “sons” are workers who lead a factory takeover in solidarity with twelve firedcompañeros. When the police violently retake the factory the resistance passes into clandestinity. The workers/guerrillas are seen reading communiqués from Perón, making bombs, and finally captured and tortured. The title of the second episode, “el desierto” (the desert), metaphorically represents Perón’s long absence. During the wait for his return, day-to-day family conflicts, union intrigues and other dangers divide thepueblo. The voice of Vizcacha—a malevolent character from “El gaucho Martín Fierro”—advises individualism and corruption, as the union is reduced to gangsterism. The third section is “la vuelta” (the return), in which the Peronist popular struggle intensifies. Documentary footage of 1968 street battles (the Cordobazo student and worker uprisings) is seen. The pueblo unites in revolt, but state repression touches off an urban guerrilla “integral war,” to which the military responds with more repression, torture and executions.

While the film was being made, Argentina was undergoing a period of intense political violence, and when the military took power in 1976 Solanas was targeted by right-wing paramilitaries and went into exile. In France, he remained active with human rights groups, made the documentary Le regard des autres (1979), and began work on what would be the first film of the next phase of his career, Tangos, el exilio de Gardel.

SILVIO RODRIGUEZ "La Masa


LETRA DE LA CANCION : LA MAZA 
SILVIO RODRíGUEZ

Si no creyera en la locura 
de la garganta del sinsonte 
si no creyera que en el monte 
se esconde el trino y la pavura 

si no creyera en la balanza 
en la razón del equilibrio 
si no creyera en el delirio 
si no creyera en la esperanza 

si no creyera en lo que agencio 
si no creyera en mi camino 
si no creyera en mi sonido 
si no creyera en mi silencio 

qué cosa fuera 
qué cosa fuera la maza sin cantera 
un amasijo hecho de cuerdas y tendones 
un revoltijo de carne con madera 
un instrumento sin mejores resplandores 
que lucecitas montadas para escena 

qué cosa fuera, corazón, qué cosa fuera 
qué cosa fuera la maza sin cantera 

un testaferro del traidor de los aplausos 
un servidor de pasado en copa nueva 
un eternizador de dioses del ocaso 
júbilo hervido con trapo y lentejuela 

qué cosa fuera, corazón, qué cosa fuera 
qué cosa fuera la maza sin cantera 

si no creyera en lo más duro 
si no creyera en el deseo 
si no creyera en lo que creo 
si no creyera en algo puro 

si no creyera en cada herida 
si no creyera en la que ronde 
si no creyera en lo que esconde 
hacerse hermano de la vida 

si no creyera en quien me escucha 
si no creyera en lo que duele 
si no creyera en lo que quede 
si no creyera en lo que lucha 

qué cosa fuera 
qué cosa fuera la maza sin cantera 
un amasijo hecho de cuerdas y tendones 
un revoltijo de carne con madera 
un instrumento sin mejores resplandores 
que lucecitas montadas para escena 

qué cosa fuera, corazón, qué cosa fuera 
qué cosa fuera la maza sin cantera 

un testaferro del traidor de los aplausos 
un servidor de pasado en copa nueva 
un eternizador de dioses del ocaso 
júbilo hervido con trapo y lentejuela 

qué cosa fuera, corazón, qué cosa fuera 
qué cosa fuera la maza sin cantera 






From some random website:


En una entrevista concedida a la revista "La bicicleta" en 1984, Silvio Rodríguez vino a aclarar todo esto al ser preguntado por el significado de La maza:

-"La maza" es un poco la razón de ser artista, de su compromiso, que no se deja seducir por los artificios y superficialidades que suelen acompañar a algunas manifestaciones escénicas...

-¿La cantera es el pueblo?
-La cantera es donde se sacan los cantos, la maza es con que se golpea. Si no hubiera una cantera de donde sacar un producto, algo, para qué serviría la maza.

-Es decir que tú sacas tu canto de las vivencias del pueblo o podría ser que la maza es la que moldea el mármol, es decir, que el cantor moldea la conciencia del pueblo...
-No no se me había ocurrido. Es al revés, lo primero.

Sunday, April 22, 2018

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Santa Barbara, Que viva Chango, Celina Gonzalez


from: http://cancionerorumbero.blogspot.com/2007/10/que-viva-chang.html

Que viva Changó

Compositor: Celina González - Reutilio Domínguez
Estilo: Guaguancó
Grabación: Clave y Guaguancó “Songs and Dances”


Güemilere lube o ba oyo

Eleküe mió ba oyo

Changó cogüaye o ba oyo

(Coro se repite)


Coro:

Que viva Changó, que viva Changó

Que viva Changó, que viva Changó Señores

(bis)


Santa Bárbara bendita

Para ti surge mi lira

(bis)

Y con emoción se inspira

Antes tu imagen bonita





Con voluntad infinita

Arranco del corazón

La melodiosa expresión

Pidiendo que desde el cielo

Nos enviés un consuelo

Y tu santa bendición


Virgen venerada y pura

Santa Bárbara bendita

(bis)

Nuestra oración favorita

Llevamos hasta tu altura


Con alegría y ternura

Quiero llevar mi tonada

Allá en tu mansión sagrada

Donde lo bueno ilumina

Junto a tu copa divina

Y a tu santísima espada


Con orgullo y poderío

Haré que tu nombre suba

(bis)

Y en el nombre de mi Cuba

Este saludo te envío


Coro: ¡Qué viva Changó, qué viva Changó!






Translation [selection]


Long live Changó, gentlemen!

Blessed Santa Barbara
may my song for you take flight
and be inspired with feeling
before your beautiful image.
Long live Changó...!
With unbounded passion

I draw deep from my heart

this lyrical expression,

praying that from heaven

you send us consolation

and your holy blessing.
Long live Changó...!

Thursday, April 19, 2018

Mercedes Sosa, "Gracias a la Vida" 



Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto
Me dio dos luceros, que cuando los abro,
Perfecto distingo lo negro del blanco
Y en el alto cielo su fondo estrellado
Y en las multitudes el hombre que yo amo

Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto
Me ha dado el oido que en todo su ancho
Graba noche y dia, grillos y canarios,
Martillos, turbinas, ladridos, chubascos,
Y la voz tan tierna de mi bien amado

Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto
Me ha dado el sonido y el abecedario;
Con el las palabras que pienso y declaro:
Madre, amigo, hermano, y luz alumbrando
La ruta del alma del que estoy amando

Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto
Me ha dado la marcha de mis pies cansados;
Con ellos anduve ciudades y charcos,
Playas y desiertos, montanas y llanos,
Y la casa tuya, tu calle y tu patio

Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto
Me dio el corazon que agita su marco
Cuando miro el fruto del cerebro humano,
Cuando miro al bueno tan lejos del malo,
Cuando miro al fondo de tus ojos claros

Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto
Me ha dado la risa y me ha dado el llanto
Asi yo distingo dicha de quebranto,
Los dos materiales que forman mi canto,
Y el canto de ustedes que es mi mismo canto,
Y el canto de todos que es mi propio canto
Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tant


Songwriters: Violeta Parra Sandoval




Atahualpa Yupanqui., El Arriero



En las arenas bailan los remolinos,
el sol juega en el brillo del pedregal,
y prendido a la magia de los caminos,
el arriero va, el arriero va.

Es bandera de niebla su poncho al viento,
lo saludan las flautas del pajonal,
y animando la tropa par esos cerros,
el arriero va, el arriero va.

Las penas y las vaquitas
se van par la misma senda.
Las penas son de nosotros,
las vaquitas son ajenas.

Un degüello de soles muestra la tarde,
se han dormido las luces del pedregal,
y animando la tropa, dale que dale,
el arriero va, el arriero va.
Amalaya la noche traiga un recuerdo
que haga menos peso mi soledad.
Como sombra en la sombra por esos cerros,
el arriero va, el arriero va.


1:00 (one minute- El Arriero)